• Mirela Tomaš Simin University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Danica Glavaš-Trbić University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Dragan Milić University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Dejan Janković University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Novi Sad, Serbia



Organic agriculture, human capital, development, sustainability


Authors explore the role of human capital in organic agriculture in Serbia. Through semi-structured interviews with 64 individual farmers holding organic production certificates, key aspects of human capital, including education level, language proficiency and ICT usage were analyzed. Findings reveal a disparity between conventional and organic farming in terms of computer literacy and ICT utilization, underscoring the need for targeted interventions to enhance technological adoption in organic farming. Moreover, the study identifies the importance of membership in agricultural associations for organic farmers, facilitating knowledge exchange and market penetration. The results suggest that human capital plays a pivotal role in driving advancements in organic agriculture, with implications for the sustainability and growth of the sector in Serbia. This underscores the necessity for future research to go deeper into human capital dynamics and their implications for sustainable agricultural development.


Download data is not yet available.


Aeberhard, A. & Rist, S. (2008). Transdisciplinary co-production of knowledge in the development of organic agriculture in Switzerland. Ecological Economics, 68(4), 1171-1181.

Ahmed, Z., Asghar, M.M., Malikm, M.N. & Nawaz, K. (2020). Moving towards a sustainable environment: The dynamic linkage between natural resources, human capital, urbanization, economic growth and ecological footprint in China. Resources Policy, 67, 101677.

Beauchesne, A. & Bryant, C. (1999). Agriculture and innovation in the urban fringe: the case of organic farming in Quebec, Canada. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 90(3), 320-328.

Becker, G.S. (1975). Human Capital, 2nd ed. Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Blockeel, J., Schader, C., Heidenreich, A., Grovermann, C., Kadzere, I., Egyir, I. S., Muriuki, A., Bandanaa, J., Tanga, C.M., Clottey, J., Ndungu J. & Stolze, M. (2023). Do organic farming initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa improve the sustainability of smallholder farmers? Evidence from five case studies in Ghana and Kenya. Journal of Rural Studies, 98, 34-58.

Chiappe, M.B. & Flora, C.B. (1998). Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372-393.

Cifrić, I. (2003). Importance of peasant agriculture experience for organic farming. Sociology and Space, 41(1-2), 5-27. [In Serbian: Cifrić, I. (2003). Značaj iskustva seljačke poljoprivrede za ekološku poljoprivredu. Sociologija i proctor. 41(1-2), 5-27.].

Dimov, D.P. & Shepherd, D.A. (2005). Human capital theory and venture capital firms: exploring “home runs” and “strike outs. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1), 1–21.

Dipesh, G. & Sagar, P. (2022). Organic farming for sustainable agriculture: a review. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 10(130), 23-32.

Gamage, A., Gangahagedara, R., Gamage, J., Jayasinghe, N., Kodikara, N., Suraweera, P. & Merah, O. (2023). Role of organic farming for achieving sustainability in agriculture. Farming System, 1(1), 100005.

Hall, A. & Mogyorody, V. (2007). Organic farming, gender, and the labor process.Rural Sociology, 72(2), 289-316.

Jansen, K. (2000). Labour, livelihoods and the quality of life in organic agriculture in Europe. Biological agriculture & horticulture, 17(3), 247-278.

Kamau, J.W., Stellmacher, T., Biber-Freudenberger, L. & Borgemeister, C. (2018). Organic and conventional agriculture in Kenya: A typology of smallholder farms in Kajiado and Murang’a counties. Journal of rural studies, 57, 171-185.

Katić, B., Savić, N. & Popović, V. (2010). Organic livestock production – Serbian unused chance. Economics of Agriculture, 57(2), 245-256. [In Serbian: Katić, B., Savić, N. & Popović, V. (2010). Organska stočarska proizvodnja – neiskorišćena šansa Srbije. Ekonomika poljoprivrede, 57(2), 245-256.].

Krause, J. & Machek, O. (2018). A comparative analysis of organic and conventional farmers in the Czech Republic. Agricultural Economics – Czech, 64(1), 1-8.

Leduc, G., Billaudet, L., Engström, E., Hansson, H. & Ryan, M. (2023). Farmers’ perceived values in conventional and organic farming: A comparison between French. Irish and Swedish farmers using the Means-end chain approach, Ecological Economics, 207, 107767.

Liu, X., Pattanaik, N., Nelson, M. & Ibrahim, M. (2019). The Choice to Go Organic: Evidence from Small US Farms. Agricultural Sciences, 10, 1566-1580. https://doi: 10.4236/as.2019.1012115

Lowe, P., Phillipson, J. & Lee, R. (2008). Socio-technical innovation for sustainable food chains: roles for social science. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19(5), 226-233.

Meares, A.C. (1997). Making the transition from conventional to sustainable agriculture: Gender, social movement participation, and quality of life on the family farm. Rural Sociology, 62(1), 21-47.

Milić, D., Lukač Bulatović, M. & Milić, D. (2018). Comparative analysis of organic fruit production in the European union and Serbia. Agroeconomics, 47(80), 13-23. [In Serbian: Milić, D., Lukač Bulatović, M. & Milić, D. (2018). Uporedna analiza organske proizvodnje voća u Evropskoj uniji i Srbiji. Agroekonomika, 47(80), 13-23.].

Nathaniel, S.P., Yalçiner, K. & Bekun, F.V. (2020). Assessing the environmental sustainability corridor: Linking natural resources, renewable energy, human capital, and ecological footprint in BRICS. Resources Policy, 70, 101924.

Padel, S. (2001). Conversion to organic farming: a typical example of the diffusion of an innovation. Sociologia Ruralis, 41(1), 40-61.

Pejanović, R., Glavaš – Trbić, D. & Tomaš Simin, M. (2017). Problems of agricultural and rural development in Serbia and necessity of new agricultural policy. Economics of Agriculture, (64)4, 1619-1633.

Pindado, E., Sánchez, M., Verstegen, J.A. & Lans, T. (2018). Searching for the entrepreneurs among new entrants in European Agriculture: the role of human and social capital. Land Use Policy, 77, 19-30.

Sahu, B. & Pradhan, L. (2023). Organic Farming: A Sustainable Approach of Agriculture, In book: Rural development: Possibilities and challenges in the present perspectives, Chapter: 2, Ganga Prakashan Sadatpur Extn. Delhi 110094.

Sapbamrer, R. & Thammachai, A. (2021). A systematic review of factors influencing farmers’ adoption of organic farming. Sustainability, 13(7), 3842.

Sarker, M.A. & Itohara, Y. (2011). Developing Organic Agriculture and Its Effect on Sustainable Livelihood Improvement of Small Farmers in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development. 21(1), 29-44.

Seufert, V., Austin, S.E., Badami, M.G., Turner, S. & Ramankutty, N. (2023). The diversity of organic farmer motivations and livelihoods in the Global South–A case study in Kerala, India. Geoforum, 138, 103670.

Shin, E., Shin, Y., Lee, S. W. & An, K. (2024). Evaluating the Environmental Factors of Organic Farming Areas Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Sustainability, 16(6), 2395.

Simić, I. (2017).Organic agriculture in Serbia 2017. National Organic Development Association Serbia Organica, Belgrade. [In Serbian: Simić, I. (2017). Organska poljoprivreda u Srbiji 2017. Nacionalno udruženje za razvoj organske proizvodnje Serbia Organica, Beograd].

Simić, I. (2020).Organic agriculture in Serbia 2020. National Organic Development Association Serbia Organica, Belgrade. [In Serbian: Simić, I. (2020). Organska poljoprivreda u Srbiji 2020. Nacionalno udruženje za razvoj organske proizvodnje Serbia Organica, Beograd].

Soni, R., Gupta, R., Agarwal, P. & Mishra, R. (2022). Organic farming: A sustainable agricultural practice. Vantage: Journal of Thematic Analysis, 3(1), 21- 44.

Sweikert, L.A. & Gigliotti, L.M. (2019). A values-based private landowner typology to improve grassland conservation initiatives. Society & Natural Resources, 32(2), 167-183.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia, Organic production in Serbia, Electronic database, Retrieved from (February 29, 2024)

The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Census 2011, Electronic database, Retrieved from (September 01, 2020)

Tomaš Simin, M., Rodić, V., Glavaš – Trbić, D. (2019). Organic agriculture as an indicator of sustainable agricultural development: Serbia in focus. Economics of Agriculture, 66(1), 265-281.

Tomaš Simin, M. & Glavaš – Trbić, D. (2016). Historical development of organic production. Economics of Agriculture, 63(3), 1083-1098.

Tomaš Simin, M. & Janković, D. (2014): Applicability of diffusion of innovation theory in organic agriculture. Economics of Agriculture, 61(2), 517-529.

Unger, J.M., Rauch, A., Frese, M. & Rosenbusch, N. (2011). Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(3), 341–358.

Vesala, H.T. & Vesala, K.M. (2010). Entrepreneurs and producers: Identities of Finnish farmers in 2001 and 2006. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(1), 21-30.

Zafar, M.W., Zaidi, S.A.H., Khan, N.R., Mirza, F.M., Hou, F. & Kirmani, S.A.A. (2019). The impact of natural resources, human capital, and foreign direct investment on the ecological footprint: the case of the United States. Resources Policy, 63, 101428.




How to Cite

Tomaš Simin, M., Glavaš-Trbić, D., Milić, D., & Janković, D. (2024). HUMAN CAPITAL AS A DEVELOPMENT FACTOR OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA . Ekonomika Poljoprivrede, 71(2), 485–501.



Original scientific papers

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>